Great Expectations by Charles Dickens – English Literature, Classic Novel, Fiction

Great Expectations by Charles Dickens
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Great Expectations. Chapman and Hall, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Great Expectations by Charles Dickens

Charles Dickens was a renowned English writer and social critic. He is considered one of the greatest novelists of the Victorian era. Dickens created some of the world’s most memorable fictional characters and is known for his vivid storytelling and keen social commentary.

His major works include:

  • “A Tale of Two Cities”
  • “Great Expectations”
  • “Oliver Twist”
  • “David Copperfield”
  • “Bleak House”
  • “A Christmas Carol”

Dickens’ works often highlighted social injustices and the struggles of the poor, reflecting his own experiences with poverty in his youth. His influence on literature and society remains significant to this day.

In this article, we shall discuss his famous novel, Great Expectations, with the help of a few questions.

What is Great Expectations about?

“Great Expectations” is a novel by Charles Dickens which tells the story of Pip, an orphaned boy who dreams of rising above his humble beginnings. The narrative follows Pip’s journey from childhood to adulthood, exploring themes of wealth, class, ambition, and personal growth.

The plot begins with Pip’s encounter with an escaped convict, Magwitch, whom he helps. Later, Pip is introduced to the wealthy but eccentric Miss Havisham and her beautiful but cold-hearted ward, Estella. Pip falls in love with Estella and yearns to become a gentleman to win her affection.

Unexpectedly, Pip comes into a large fortune from a secret benefactor, whom he initially believes to be Miss Havisham. However, it is later revealed that Magwitch, the convict he once aided, is his true benefactor. This revelation forces Pip to reevaluate his values and understanding of wealth and gentility.

Throughout the novel, Pip’s experiences lead him to recognize the true meaning of loyalty, affection, and integrity, ultimately finding contentment in humility and genuine human connections.

What inspired Dickens to write the novel?

Several factors inspired Charles Dickens to write “Great Expectations”:

Personal Experiences

Dickens’ own life experiences significantly influenced the novel. His childhood experiences of poverty and his subsequent rise to fame and fortune mirror Pip’s journey. Dickens’ early years were marked by financial hardship and his father’s imprisonment for debt, which had a profound impact on him.

Social Commentary

Dickens was a keen observer and critic of the social issues of his time. “Great Expectations” addresses themes of class and social mobility, exploring the rigid class structures of Victorian society and the notion that true gentility and worth come from character and moral integrity rather than wealth and social status.

Literary Influences

Dickens was inspired by other works of literature. For example, the themes and narrative style of “Great Expectations” show the influence of earlier novels like Henry Fielding‘s “Tom Jones” and William Makepeace Thackeray‘s “Vanity Fair,” which also explore themes of social ambition and personal growth.

Professional Motivations

Dickens wrote “Great Expectations” during a time when he was seeking to revitalize his career and secure financial stability. The novel was serialized in his weekly periodical, “All the Year Round,” helping to boost its circulation and reach a wide audience.

Character Archetypes

Dickens was also inspired by the characters he created and the potential for their development. The character of Pip allowed him to explore the complexities of human emotions, aspirations, and the consequences of one’s actions on personal growth and relationships.

These elements combined to create a rich and compelling narrative that continues to resonate with readers today.

Who are the primary characters in Great Expectations?

The primary characters in “Great Expectations” include:

  1. Pip (Philip Pirrip): The protagonist and narrator of the story. An orphan raised by his sister and her husband, Pip dreams of becoming a gentleman and rising above his lowly status.
  2. Joe Gargery: Pip’s brother-in-law and a kind-hearted blacksmith. Joe is a father figure to Pip and represents loyalty and goodness.
  3. Mrs. Joe Gargery: Pip’s harsh and overbearing sister who raises him “by hand.” She is married to Joe Gargery.
  4. Miss Havisham: A wealthy and eccentric woman who was jilted at the altar. She lives in a decaying mansion and raises Estella to break men’s hearts as revenge for her own suffering.
  5. Estella: Miss Havisham’s beautiful but cold-hearted ward. Pip falls in love with Estella, who has been taught to disdain and manipulate men.
  6. Abel Magwitch: An escaped convict whom Pip helps as a child. Magwitch later becomes Pip’s secret benefactor, providing him with the means to become a gentleman.
  7. Herbert Pocket: Pip’s close friend and confidant. He helps Pip navigate the world of gentlemen and provides support throughout Pip’s journey.
  8. Mr. Jaggers: A powerful and astute lawyer who manages Pip’s finances and represents both Miss Havisham and Magwitch.
  9. John Wemmick: Mr. Jaggers’ clerk, who has a dual personality—professional and unfeeling at work, but warm and caring in his personal life.
  10. Bentley Drummle: A coarse and unkind young man from a wealthy family. He becomes Pip’s rival and eventually marries Estella.

These characters drive the narrative and contribute to the exploration of themes such as social class, ambition, loyalty, and personal growth.

What are the themes explored in the novel?

“Great Expectations” explores several significant themes:

Social Class and Ambition

The novel examines the rigid class structures of Victorian society and the desire for upward social mobility. Pip’s journey from a humble blacksmith’s apprentice to a gentleman reflects the complexities and often illusory nature of social advancement.

Wealth and Personal Value

Dickens critiques the notion that wealth and social status are indicators of a person’s worth. Pip learns that true gentility and worth come from one’s character and actions rather than money and position.

Love and Rejection

Various forms of love and rejection are portrayed, such as Pip’s unrequited love for Estella, Miss Havisham’s heartache, and Joe’s unconditional love for Pip. These relationships highlight the pain of rejection and the importance of genuine affection.

Crime and Justice

The novel explores the theme of crime and its consequences through characters like Magwitch and Compeyson. It questions the fairness of the justice system and the social stigmas associated with crime and punishment.

Redemption and Forgiveness

Pip’s moral and emotional growth involves recognizing his faults and seeking redemption. Characters like Magwitch seek forgiveness and redemption for their past actions, emphasizing the possibility of personal transformation.

Identity and Self-Discovery

Pip’s journey is one of self-discovery, as he learns about his true self and what he values most in life. The novel delves into the complexities of identity and the influence of upbringing and experiences.

Isolation and Companionship

Characters like Miss Havisham and Pip experience profound isolation, while the importance of companionship and human connection is underscored by relationships with Joe, Herbert, and others.

Revenge and Forgiveness

Miss Havisham’s desire for revenge against men contrasts with the eventual forgiveness and understanding that characters like Pip and Estella reach, highlighting the destructive nature of revenge and the healing power of forgiveness.

These themes are intricately woven into the narrative, making “Great Expectations” a rich and enduring exploration of human nature and society.

What is the style in which the novel is written?

“Great Expectations” is written in a style that is characteristic of Charles Dickens’ works, with several notable features:

First-Person Narrative

The novel is narrated by Pip, the protagonist, which allows readers to closely follow his thoughts, feelings, and personal growth. This perspective provides a deep emotional connection to Pip’s experiences.

Detailed Descriptions

Dickens is known for his vivid and detailed descriptions of characters, settings, and events. His prose paints a clear and often dramatic picture of Victorian England, bringing the story to life.


The novel features richly developed characters, each with distinct personalities and mannerisms. Dickens often uses memorable and exaggerated traits to make his characters stand out, from the eccentric Miss Havisham to the kind-hearted Joe Gargery.

Social Commentary

Dickens’ writing is infused with social criticism. He uses the story and characters to highlight the injustices and moral issues of his time, particularly those related to class, wealth, and the legal system.

Symbolism and Imagery

The novel is rich with symbolism and imagery. For example, Satis House, Miss Havisham’s decaying mansion, symbolizes decay and stagnation, while the character of Magwitch represents the theme of redemption.

Humor and Satire

Despite its serious themes, “Great Expectations” contains elements of humor and satire. Dickens often uses irony and wit to critique social norms and human follies.

Complex Plot and Subplots

The narrative is intricate, with multiple interwoven plotlines and subplots. Dickens skillfully ties these together, often revealing connections and coincidences that drive the story forward.

Emotional Depth

The novel delves deeply into the emotional lives of its characters, exploring themes of love, guilt, ambition, and redemption. Dickens’ ability to evoke a wide range of emotions in his readers is a hallmark of his style.

“Great Expectations” combines detailed storytelling with rich character development and sharp social commentary, creating a compelling and enduring work of literature.

What is the significance and legacy of Great Expectations?

“Great Expectations” holds significant literary and cultural importance, and its legacy is substantial:

Literary Merit

Widely regarded as one of Charles Dickens’ greatest works, “Great Expectations” showcases his narrative prowess, rich character development, and incisive social commentary. Its intricate plot and profound themes have made it a staple in the study of Victorian literature.

Social Commentary

The novel offers a critical examination of the social class system, wealth, and personal values in Victorian England. Dickens’ exploration of these themes has continued to resonate with readers, offering timeless insights into human nature and society.

Character Archetypes

Characters like Pip, Miss Havisham, and Magwitch have become iconic in literary history. Their complex personalities and moral dilemmas have influenced countless subsequent works and adaptations in various media.

Influence on Subsequent Literature

“Great Expectations” has inspired numerous authors and works across genres. Its themes, narrative style, and character development techniques are studied and emulated by writers and scholars.


The novel has been adapted into numerous films, television series, plays, and even operas. These adaptations have introduced the story to a broader audience, ensuring its relevance across different generations and cultures.

Educational Value

Frequently included in academic curricula, “Great Expectations” serves as an essential text for understanding the social and literary context of the Victorian era. It provides rich material for discussions on themes such as identity, ambition, and moral growth.

Enduring Themes

The novel’s exploration of personal growth, redemption, and the true nature of gentility continues to resonate with readers. Its moral and ethical questions remain relevant, encouraging reflection on one’s values and aspirations.

Cultural Impact

Phrases and character archetypes from the novel have permeated popular culture. Terms like “Pip’s great expectations” have entered common parlance, symbolizing ambitious hopes and dreams.

“Great Expectations” remains a significant literary work with a lasting legacy, influencing readers and creators alike with its rich narrative and enduring themes.

Interested in learning about other iconic works of literature?

Check out the following articles:

  1. The Sound and the Fury by William Faulkner
  2. Dubliners by James Joyce
  3. The Stranger by Albert Camus
  4. Little Women by Louisa May Alcott
  5. The Invisible Man by H.G. Wells

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